At home in a private garage / driveway, or at a designated parking spot / shared parking facility (common for apartments).
At work at your office building's parking facility, either reserved or (semi)public.
In public along streets, on the highway, and at any public parking facility you can think of - e.g. shopping malls, restaurants, hotels, hospitals etc. Whether you have access to all public charging stations depends on whether your charge card is interoperable. If "interoperability" is activated, you have the power to charge at various charging station providers.
Charging times vary depending on: your current level of battery charge, your battery capacity, your charging station's capacity and settings, as well as the capacity of your charging station's energy source (e.g. whether it's at home or an office building).
Plug-in hybrids require 1-4 hours to be fully charged, while full-electric cars require 4-8 hours (from 0 to 100%). On average, cars are parked at home for up to 14 hours a day, and at work for around 8 hours a day. With a charging station at your disposal, all this time can be used to top up your car to 100%.
Regular electricity outlet: Be warned if you’re charging your EV from a regular electricity outlet. Charging at home would require a specific charging cable that prevents power outage and overheating. In addition, you will also need to make sure the outlet is nearby your car, as you may never use an extension cable to charge your car. Yet even with these precautions taken, charging from a regular outlet is highly discouraged, as most residential buildings aren't wired to carry high electrical draw. Charging times will depend on which country you are in. For an EV with a range of 160 km, you can expect a charging time of around 6-8 hours in Europe.
EV Charging station: This is the most recommended method of car charging, as it makes safe and efficient use of your car and energy sources (e.g. home or office building) capacity. With a charging station at your disposal, every time you hit the road you're sure to have a fully charged car with maximum range. A charging station can charge up to 8 times faster than a regular outlet. This means that any EV will be charged 100% in just 1-4 hours. Find an overview of charging times for the most common battery capacities here.
Fast charging station: Fast Charging stations pop up most often outside cities and along highways. Despite being fast (it charges in 20-30 minutes), an average fast charger brings an EV only up to 80% during a single charging session. Due to the costly equipment and hardware of fast charging stations, these chargers are usually only purchased and built per request by local governments.
There are several kinds of charging stations -- including Level 1, Level 2 and DC Fast Charging – so the one you choose will depend on a number of factors. These include expected customer use cases, cost and site design considerations.
Charging station installation costs can exceed the cost of the hardware itself and are influenced by a number of design factors that should be considered such as:
- Currently available electrical service. All new charging station installations should have a load analysis performed on the facility’s electrical demand to determine if there is capacity to add EV charging stations. AC Level 2 stations will need a dedicated 240-volt (40 amp) circuit and upgrading electrical service may be necessary.
- Distance between the electrical panel and the charging station. A longer distance between the electrical panel and the EV charging station means higher installation costs because it increases the amount of necessary trenching (and repair), conduit, and wire. It is desirable to minimize the distance between the electrical panel and EV charging station as much as possible while also considering the location of the charging station on the property.
- Location of charging station on the property. Consider the impact of placing the charging station at a particular location on the property. For example, placing charging station parking spaces in the back of a building might discourage their use, but other customers may be upset if a charging station is installed in prime parking spaces that often remain vacant because there are few EV drivers.
Other considerations have less impact on installation costs but can impact how effective the station is at benefiting EV drivers and other clients. Some of these include the path the charging cord takes when in use and parking lot management practices.
Yes, you are allowed to charge people for using your station although many station owners choose to provide free charging as an enticement or benefit. An example of this is an employer offering free charging to their employees and customers. If you decide to charge for use there are a number of factors to consider in determining what works best for you.
Charging for use depends on venue. Your decision will depend in part on the venue where it is operating. In some areas of New York State, particularly in the larger cities, some garages that charge for parking may find clients that are willing to pay extra for EV charging on a regular basis because they do not have the ability to charge at their residence.
Charging for use depends on site installation purpose. Profit generated by the station is not the only opportunity to generate a return on investment from the charging station. Charging stations might attract EV drivers who then patronize your business, retain valuable employees, or provide a sense of your environmental stewardship which might help attract EV and non-EV residents, employees, or customers.
How charging for use works. Station owners can charge for use per hour, per session, or per unit of electricity.
- Per Hour: If you charge per hour, there is a set cost for any vehicle whether it is charging or not, and different vehicles receive electricity at different rates, so the cost of energy may vary widely by charging session.
- Per Session: This is usually more appropriate for workplace charging or charging stations that have very short, regular sessions.
- Per Unit of Energy (usually kilowatt-hour [kWh]): This accurately accounts for the true cost of electricity for the charging station owner, but does not give an incentive for a car that is fully charged to leave the space
Some site owners have tried combinations of these approaches, such as charging a flat rate for the first two hours, then an increasing rate for longer sessions. Some locations might prefer to lower their operating expenses by not joining a charging station network and offering charging for free.
As many people drive to work and EV drivers like to top off their charge whenever possible offering workplace charging is a great employee benefit for employers to offer. In fact, charging at work can as much as double employee EV all-electric daily commuting range. For employers, workplace charging can help attract and retain a cutting-edge workforce and demonstrates leadership in adopting clean energy technologies.
- NYSERDA's Workplace Charging Brochure [PDF] provides overviews of the benefits of installing charging stations at workplaces and guidance on the process of planning, installing, and managing EV charging infrastructure
- The Department of Energy’s Workplace Charging site offers guidance on engaging employees to take advantage of this benefit, as well as detailed information on evaluating, planning for, installing, and managing workplace charging
DC fast charging utilizes direct-current (DC) energy transfer and a 480-volt alternating current (AC) input to provide extremely rapid recharges at heavily used public charging locations. Depending on the EV, DC fast charge stations can provide an 80% recharge in as little as 20 minutes. Charging speeds depend on a car’s battery size and charging hardware, but many EVs can now charge in excess of 100 kW (more than 100 miles of range in 20 minutes). DC fast charging is primarily an option for all-electric vehicles. Few plug-in hybrid EVs can use DC fast chargers. There are three main connectors for DC fast chargers; EVs that can use DC fast chargers are only compatible with one of the following:
- SAE Combined Charging System (CCS) is a widely accepted charging standard used by most automakers
- CHAdeMO is a common charging standard primarily used by Nissan and Mistubishi
- Tesla’s Supercharger Network is based on a proprietary charging technology that can only be used by Tesla’s own cars
A number of public and private companies are building more charging stations in New York State and beyond, including the New York Power Authority, Electrify America, EVgo, ChargePoint, Greenlots, and more.